Key meeting point: Most parts of fixed braces attach to a bracket
The most important attachment with fixed braces is a little clip called a bracket. Brackets attach to the surfaces of your teeth with a special adhesive. Later the archwire is put into the horizontal slot. Brackets also have little wings. On non self-ligating brackets, the archwire attaches to them with rubber bands.
There are many different kinds of braces. This is a short summary:
Metal braces are made of stainless steel and they are still the most common braces. Unlike before, metal braces are now much smaller and flatter. By the way: You can style your own metal braces with brightly coloured rubber bands.
Ceramic braces have a completely natural look because they are transparent. This lets your tooth colour shine through. They are also much less noticeable than metal braces.
Self-ligating braces use a clip to hold the archwire. This makes ligatures (little rubber bands which attach the archwire to the bracket) unnecessary. Your time in the orthodontist's chair can also be shorter because the clip system makes the archwire change easier.
Unlike visible braces, lingual braces don't attach to the front of the tooth, but to the back side. So you can't see lingual braces from the outside.
You want to know what braces will do the job best for you? Your orthodontist will tell you and your parents in a consultation.